A financial plan is a comprehensive evaluation of an investors current and future financial state by using currently known variables to predict future cash flows, asset values and withdrawal plans. Most individuals work in conjunction with their preferred financial planner and use current net worth, tax liabilities, asset allocation, and future retirement and estate plans in developing financial plans. These metrics are used along with estimates of asset growth to determine if a person financial goals can be met in the future, or what steps need to be taken to ensure that they are.
Elements of a Financial Plan
A financial plan is based on an individual's or a family's clearly defined financial goals, including funding a college education for the children, buying a larger home, starting a business, retiring on time or leaving a legacy. Financial goals should be quantified and set to milestones for tracking.
Investment Net Worth Statement
A snapshot of assets and liabilities serves as a benchmark for measuring progress towards financial goals.
Comprehensive risk management plan
Identify all risk exposures and provide the necessary coverage to protect the family and its assets against financial loss. The risk management plan includes a full review of life and disability insurance, personal liability coverage, property and casualty coverage, and catastrophic coverage.
Long Term Investment Plan
Include a customized asset allocation strategy based on specific investment objectives and a risk profile. This investment plan sets guidelines for selecting, buying and selling investments and establishing benchmarks for performance review.
Tax Reduction Strategy
Identify ways to minimize taxes on personal income to the extent permissible by the tax code. The strategy should include identification of tax-favored investment vehicles that can reduce taxation of investment income.
Create arrangements for the preservation and distribution of assets with attention to minimizing settlement costs and taxes. Review and update estate panning instruments, such as wills, inter-vivos trusts, power of attorney, medical directives, and marital trusts.